Pod Security Admission
Kubernetes v1.23 [beta]
The Kubernetes Pod Security Standards define different isolation levels for Pods. These standards let you define how you want to restrict the behavior of pods in a clear, consistent fashion.
As an Beta feature, Kubernetes offers a built-in Pod Security admission controller, the successor to PodSecurityPolicies. Pod security restrictions are applied at the namespace level when pods are created.
PodSecurity admission plugin
In v1.23, the
PodSecurity feature gate
is a Beta feature and is enabled by default.
In v1.22, the
PodSecurity feature gate
is an Alpha feature and must be enabled in
kube-apiserver in order to use the built-in admission plugin.
Alternative: installing the
PodSecurity admission webhook
For environments where the built-in
PodSecurity admission plugin cannot be used,
either because the cluster is older than v1.22, or the
PodSecurity feature cannot be enabled,
PodSecurity admission logic is also available as a Beta validating admission webhook.
A pre-built container image, certificate generation scripts, and example manifests are available at https://git.k8s.io/pod-security-admission/webhook.
git clone email@example.com:kubernetes/pod-security-admission.git cd pod-security-admission/webhook make certs kubectl apply -k .
Pod Security levels
Pod Security admission places requirements on a Pod's Security
Context and other related fields according
to the three levels defined by the Pod Security
restricted. Refer to the Pod Security Standards
page for an in-depth look at those requirements.
Pod Security Admission labels for namespaces
Once the feature is enabled or the webhook is installed, you can configure namespaces to define the admission control mode you want to use for pod security in each namespace. Kubernetes defines a set of labels that you can set to define which of the predefined Pod Security Standard levels you want to use for a namespace. The label you select defines what action the control plane takes if a potential violation is detected:
|enforce||Policy violations will cause the pod to be rejected.|
|audit||Policy violations will trigger the addition of an audit annotation to the event recorded in the audit log, but are otherwise allowed.|
|warn||Policy violations will trigger a user-facing warning, but are otherwise allowed.|
A namespace can configure any or all modes, or even set a different level for different modes.
For each mode, there are two labels that determine the policy used:
# The per-mode level label indicates which policy level to apply for the mode. # # MODE must be one of `enforce`, `audit`, or `warn`. # LEVEL must be one of `privileged`, `baseline`, or `restricted`. pod-security.kubernetes.io/<MODE>: <LEVEL> # Optional: per-mode version label that can be used to pin the policy to the # version that shipped with a given Kubernetes minor version (for example v1.23). # # MODE must be one of `enforce`, `audit`, or `warn`. # VERSION must be a valid Kubernetes minor version, or `latest`. pod-security.kubernetes.io/<MODE>-version: <VERSION>
Check out Enforce Pod Security Standards with Namespace Labels to see example usage.
Workload resources and Pod templates
Pods are often created indirectly, by creating a workload object such as a Deployment or Job. The workload object defines a Pod template and a controller for the workload resource creates Pods based on that template. To help catch violations early, both the audit and warning modes are applied to the workload resources. However, enforce mode is not applied to workload resources, only to the resulting pod objects.
You can define exemptions from pod security enforcement in order allow the creation of pods that would have otherwise been prohibited due to the policy associated with a given namespace. Exemptions can be statically configured in the Admission Controller configuration.
Exemptions must be explicitly enumerated. Requests meeting exemption criteria are ignored by the
Admission Controller (all
warn behaviors are skipped). Exemption dimensions include:
- Usernames: requests from users with an exempt authenticated (or impersonated) username are ignored.
- RuntimeClassNames: pods and workload resources specifying an exempt runtime class name are ignored.
- Namespaces: pods and workload resources in an exempt namespace are ignored.
system:serviceaccount:kube-system:replicaset-controller) should generally not be exempted, as doing so would implicitly exempt any user that can create the corresponding workload resource.
Updates to the following pod fields are exempt from policy checks, meaning that if a pod update request only changes these fields, it will not be denied even if the pod is in violation of the current policy level:
- Any metadata updates except changes to the seccomp or AppArmor annotations:
- Valid updates to
- Valid updates to